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Blake Miller: GPS

Orient your map to stay found before heading out into the backcountry

Orient your map to stay found before heading out into the backcountry

Orienting the map visually (or with the greater precision afforded by a compass) connects hikers to their surroundings, helps them see the larger picture, and their place in it.  Hikers who nurture this habit are usually both safer and more appreciative of the places they’re exploring.” From “Staying Found” by June Fleming

by Blake Miller

Check out this survival LED light for a keychain!

Check out this survival LED light for a keychain!

Orienting a map is a starting point to identify where I am, where I want to go and where I have been. I orient my topographic map (topo) before I leave the trail head and at regular intervals during a hike.

Orienting a map is a starting point to identify where I am, where I want to go and where I have been. I orient my topographic map (topo) before I leave the trail head and at regular intervals during a hike. (Blake Miller photo)

It is a process that involves both map and compass.  Of course, orienting a map can be done without a compass and done visually.  I find using a compass takes just a tad more time and the more hands on time with the compass the better.

Correctly orienting my map allows me to get “dialed in” to my surroundings.  It is a process where I align the map, compass and GPS to the terrain before me.

This orientation procedure is a great opportunity to involve young people in backcountry navigation.  Give them a quick review of topo basics and your plan before starting out.

A topo is your key to the backcountry.  It unlocks the critical information regarding sources of water, woodlands, trails, roads, grid information and elevation.  I use a US Geologic Survey (USGS) map at the scale of the map should be 1:24,000.  

National Geographic has superb topos of the National Parks and you may find quality maps of this scale of the area you will travel in.  Quality outdoor, printing and mapping stores will have such a map available.  While you get comfortable with a hard copy paper map, experiment with map software ( or internet sites that offer free maps (  Aerial imagery such as Google Earth ( compliments the topo.

A great reference for navigating a topo is the book “Staying Found” by June Fleming.   It’s available at many bookstores and is likely at the local library.

Moving on to the compass, I recommend backcountry travelers use a declination adjustable compass such as the Brunton 8010G, Silva Ranger or a Suunto M2. Declination is the angular difference between true north and magnetic north.    A declination adjustable compass keeps things simple.  For example, a compass adjusted to degrees true will match the same orientation as the map; all in degrees true.

Declination data can be found in the diagram at the bottom of the USGS topo

Declination data can be found in the diagram at the bottom of the USGS topo




On some commercially produced maps you really have to look for this information.  I recommend that map declination information be verified at   This is essential in the Pacific Northwest where maps are notoriously out of date in terms of road, city and some trail data.







Using the manufacturer’s instructions, I adjust the compass for declination.  If your declination is east, observe the orienting arrow (on a Brunton 8010G) rotate in a clockwise direction (see picture below.)  If declination is westerly adjust counter clockwise.

















To correctly orient my topo, I lay the baseplate (edge of the compass) on the border of the topo; below.  Use the map’s eastern or western border.  I then turn my body (while holding the map and compass) until the map points to true north; the red magnetic needle will be on top of the orienting arrow.  (Remember, maps are laid out in degrees true.)

Now both the topo and compass will be oriented to true north.

Compare the map to the terrain

Compare the map to the terrain. (Blake Miller photo)


At this point, I evaluate the topographic features of the map and compare it to the terrain in front of me.  Identification of features such as buttes, mountains, waterways and the relationship between feature and map are very important.  I make a point to visually reconcile what is seen with the map.

I do it two ways.

First, correlate from the topo map to the terrain.  Using the Cascade Mountain range as an example, from the trail head I should see the South Sister summit to the northwest. 

Second, correlate from terrain to the map.  An example would be to observe Broken Top to the north east and then determine if that observation matches the map.

If this relationship cannot be made then I delay forward movement.  I want to be as dialed in as the compass.  This can be difficult in bad weather with limited visibility. 

In such a situation I’ll check my GPS, verify and plot my position on the map.  I may resort to dead reckoning as I proceed.  To be certain, I plot my position more frequently.  

Further, I’ll identify large terrain features that will become my “backcountry handrails.”  (Handrails can include roads, railroad beds, ridgelines, power transmission lines and streams.)   If possible, I’ll talk to others on the trail to learn of their observations and recent experience.

I always try to preload map software loaded into my GPS receiver. I can compare this information with that of my map.  First, I’ll set-up my receiver to report compass information in degrees true; matching my topo and compass.  Now I compare my GPS to my map and terrain.

Now that you have oriented your map, compass and GPS you have completed an important first step in land navigation and are ready to head out.

Blake Miller: Navigation and GPS expert

Blake Miller

Blake Miller has made a career out of staying found and knowing where he is at all times. His formal navigation training began when he joined the U.S. Navy in 1973. He served as an officer aboard several Navy ships over his twenty-year career; many of those tours included the duty of Navigator. Blake began working with satellite navigation systems at sea in 1976, culminating with the then-new Global Positioning Systems aboard the Battleship WISCONSIN in early 1990.

In 1998 Blake started Outdoor Quest, a business dedicated to backcountry navigation and wilderness survival. Blake has taught classes to wild land firefighters, state agency staffs, Search and Rescue team members, hunters, hikers, skiers, fishermen and equestrians. He regularly teaches classes through the Community Education programs at Central Oregon (Bend) and Chemeketa (Salem, OR) Community Colleges.

As a volunteer, Blake teaches navigation and survival classes, to students in the local school district and conservation groups. He is a member of a Search and Rescue team.


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Blake Miller: GPS

Leon Pantenburg is a wilderness enthusiast, and doesn't claim to be a survival expert or expertise as a survivalist. As a newspaperman and journalist for three decades, covering search and rescue, sheriff's departments, floods, forest fires and other natural disasters and outdoor emergencies, Leon learned many people died unnecessarily or escaped miraculously from outdoor emergency situations when simple, common sense might have changed the outcome. Leon now teaches common sense techniques to the average person in order to avert potential disasters. His emphasis is on tried and tested, simple techniques of wilderness survival. Every technique, piece of equipment or skill recommended on this website has been thoroughly tested and researched. After graduating from Iowa State University, Leon completed a six-month, 2,552-mile solo Mississippi River canoe trip from the headwaters at Lake Itasca, Minn., to the Gulf of Mexico. His wilderness backpacking experience includes extended solos through Yellowstone’s backcountry; hiking the John Muir Trail in California, and numerous shorter trips along the Pacific Crest Trail. Other mountain backpacking trips include hikes through the Uintas in Utah; the Beartooths in Montana; the Sawtooths in Idaho; the Pryors, the Wind River Range, Tetons and Bighorns in Wyoming; Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado, the Catskills in New York and Death Valley National Monument in southern California. Some of Leon's canoe trips include sojourns through the Okefenokee Swamp and National Wildlife Refuge in Georgia, the Big Black River swamp in Mississippi and the Boundary Waters canoe area in northern Minnesota and numerous small river trips in the Midwest and Pacific Northwest. Leon is also an avid fisherman and an elk, deer, upland game and waterfowl hunter. Since 1991, Leon has been an assistant scoutmaster with Boy Scout Troop 18 in Bend, and is a scoutmaster wilderness skills trainer for the Boy Scouts’ Fremont District. Leon earned a second degree black belt in Taekwondo, and competed in his last tournament (sparring and form) at age 49. He is an enthusiastic Bluegrass mandolin picker and fiddler and two-time finalist in the International Dutch Oven Society’s World Championships.

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